torsdag 8. desember 2011

Today is the day!

Today throughout Tanzania the citizens are celebrating their 50 years of freedom and independence. If all went well, hundreds of climbers reached Uhuru peak - the freedom peak of Mount Kilimanjaro 5895 m in the morning hours today!


Today's story from The Citizen:

President Jakaya Kikwete will today lead his 40 million plus compatriots at the climax of three-month-long celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of Tanzania Mainland’s independence.Uhuru Stadium in Dar es Salaam, will be the venue of the historic event, which will also be witnessed by at least 14 foreign heads of state and top representatives of several countries.In attendance, too, will be Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda, retired presidents, Mr Ali Hassan Mwinyi (1985-1995) and Mr Benjamin Mkapa (1995-2005), plus nine former prime ministers.

Included in the cast of VIPs, furthermore, will be a cross section of political and religious leaders.The city will be a beehive of activity as thousands of people are expected to stream into the face-lifted grounds to witness the event aptly dubbed “party of the decade.”

The Dar es Salaam traffic gridlocks are likely to worsen, as some roads will be cleared for a couple of hours to smoothen the movements of dignitaries arriving for, and departing after the Uhuru Day fete, as well as local leaders cruising to and from the event venue.

Military displays, including a fly past by fighter jets, song and dance, would be some of the highlights for the day whose significance is sure to stir long, happy and emotional memories for many. Over the past five decades since attaining self rule from Britain in 1961, Tanzania has registered many achievements in the social, economic and political spheres.

The country hosts over 120 tribes, and yet they have co-existed largely harmoniously, earning it the distinction of being a model of stability in a continent where tribalism and civil strife are rife. Another big score is that three presidents bequeathed the reins of power to their respective successors and retired peacefully. The multi-party political system that formally took off in July 1992 has functioned relatively successfully in a turbulent region and continent, for which Tanzania has earned accolades.

On the economy and social services front, and despite biting poverty and deepening corruption remaining major concerns for many Tanzanians and development partners today, figures depict a nation that has been on a steady rise (See stories pages 3,4 and 5). Key indicators for Education, Health, Water services, and Infrastructure development are promising despite existing gaps and challenges.

The planned process to review the country’s constitution was timed to coincide with today’s celebrations and the opportunity is being viewed as a major step towards cementing the growth.

It also sets the nation on a clear path to attaining the status currently enjoyed by the Asian tigers whose phenomenal socio-economic growth has provided food for thought for developing nations that were at par during independence.

For many years now, Tanzania has enjoyed the goodwill of development partners and other international organizations, chiefly due to its peaceful nature and its support to the southern African liberation struggle, and mediation role in unstable nations.

Today is an occasion for the people to celebrate and engage in justifiable collective self-congratulation, at the end of which, they will figure out how to triumph over ignorance, disease and poverty, which founding President Mwalimu Julius Nyerere cited as the three major stumbling blocks that the newly independent nation had to confront.

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onsdag 7. desember 2011

The history of mainland Tanzania

Early History

Most of the known history of Tanganyika before 1964 concerns the coastal area, although the interior has a number of important prehistoric sites, including the Olduvai Gorge. Trading contacts between Arabia and the East African coast existed by the 1st century AD, and there are indications of connections with India. The coastal trading centres were mainly Arab settlements, and relations between the Arabs and their African neighbours appear to have been fairly friendly. After the arrival of the Portuguese in the late 15th century, the position of the Arabs was gradually undermined, but the Portuguese made little attempt to penetrate into the interior. They lost their foothold north of the Ruvuma River early in the 18th century as a result of an alliance between the coastal Arabs and the ruler of Muscat on the Arabian Peninsula. This link remained extremely tenuous, however, until French interest in the slave trade from the ancient town of Kilwa, on the Tanganyikan coast, revived the trade in 1776. Attention by the French also aroused the sultan of Muscat's interest in the economic possibilities of the East African coast, and a new Omani governor was appointed at Kilwa. For some time most of the slaves came from the Kilwa hinterland, and until the 19th century such contacts as existed between the coast and the interior were due mainly to African caravans from the interior.

In their constant search for slaves, Arab traders began to penetrate farther into the interior, more particularly in the southeast toward Lake Nyasa. Farther north two merchants from India followed the tribal trade routes to reach the country of the Nyamwezi about 1825. Along this route ivory appears to have been as great an attraction as slaves, and Sa'id bin Sultan himself, after the transfer of his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar, gave every encouragement to the Arabs to pursue these trading possibilities. From the Nyamwezi country the Arabs pressed on to Lake Tanganyika in the early 1840s. Tabora (or Kazé, as it was then called) and Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, became important trading centres, and a number of Arabs made their homes there. They did not annex these territories but occasionally ejected hostile chieftains. Mirambo, an African chief who built for himself a temporary empire to the west of Tabora in the 1860s and '70s, effectively blocked the Arab trade routes when they refused to pay him tribute. His empire was purely a personal one, however, and collapsed on his death in 1884.

The first Europeans to show an interest in Tanganyika in the 19th century were missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, Johann Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann, who in the late 1840s reached Kilimanjaro. It was a fellow missionary, Jakob Erhardt, whose famous "slug" map (showing, on Arab information, a vast, shapeless, inland lake) helped stimulate the interest of the British explorers Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke. They traveled from Bagamoyo to Lake Tanganyika in 1857-58, and Speke also saw Lake Victoria. This expedition was followed by Speke's second journey, in 1860, in the company of J.A. Grant, to justify the former's claim that the Nile rose in Lake Victoria. These primarily geographic explorations were followed by the activities of David Livingstone, who in 1866 set out on his last journey for Lake Nyasa. Livingstone's object was to expose the horrors of the slave trade and, by opening up legitimate trade with the interior, to destroy the slave trade at its roots. Livingstone's journey led to the later expeditions of H.M. Stanley and V.L. Cameron. Spurred on by Livingstone's work and example, a number of missionary societies began to take an interest in East Africa after 1860.

Colonial Period

German East Africa
The first agent of German imperialism was Carl Peters, who, with Joachim, Count Pfeil and Karl Juhlke, evaded the sultan of Zanzibar late in 1884 to land on the mainland. He made a number of "contracts" in the Usambara area by which several chiefs were said to have surrendered their territory to him. Peters' activities were confirmed by Bismarck. By the Anglo-German Agreement of 1886 the sultan of Zanzibar's vaguely substantiated claims to dominion on the mainland were limited to a 10-mile-wide coastal strip, and Britain and Germany divided the hinterland between them as spheres of influence, the region to the south becoming known as German East Africa. Following the example of the British to the north, the Germans obtained a lease of the coastal strip from the sultan in 1888, but their tactlessness and fear of commercial competition led to a Muslim rising in August 1888. The rebellion was put down only after the intervention of the imperial German government and with the assistance of the British navy.

Recognizing the administrative inability of the German East Africa Company, which had thereto ruled the country, the German government declared a protectorate over its sphere of influence in 1891 and over the coastal strip, where the company had bought out the sultan's rights. Germany was anxious to exploit the resources of its new dependency, but lack of communications at first restricted development to the coastal area. The introduction of sisal from Mexico in 1892 by the German agronomist Richard Hindorff marked the beginning of the territory's most valuable industry, which was encouraged by the development of a railway from the new capital of Dar es Salaam to Lake Tanganyika. In 1896 work began on the construction of a railway running northeastward from Tanga to Moshi, which it reached in 1912. This successfully encouraged the pioneer coffee-growing activities on the slopes of Kilimanjaro. Wild rubber tapped by Africans, together with plantation-grown rubber, helped swell the country's economy. The government also supplied good-quality cottonseed free to African growers and sold it cheaply to European planters. The administration tried to make good the lack of clerks and minor craftsmen by encouraging the development of schools, an activity in which various missionary societies were already engaged.

The enforcement of German overlordship was strongly resisted, but control was established by the beginning of the 20th century. Almost at once came a reaction to German methods of administration, the outbreak of the Maji Maji rising in 1905. Although there was little organization behind it, the rising spread over a considerable portion of southeastern Tanganyika and was not finally suppressed until 1907. It led to a reappraisal of German policy in East Africa. The imperial government had attempted to protect African land rights in 1895 but had failed in its objective in the Kilimanjaro area. Similarly, liberal labour legislation had not been properly implemented. The German government set up a separate Colonial Department in 1907, and more money was invested in East Africa. A more liberal form of administration rapidly replaced the previous semimilitary system.

World War I put an end to all German experiments. Blockaded by the British navy, the country could neither export produce nor get help from Germany. The British advance into German territory continued steadily from 1916 until the whole country was eventually occupied. The effects of the war upon Germany's achievements in East Africa were disastrous; the administration and economy were completely disrupted. In these circumstances the Africans reverted to their old social systems and their old form of subsistence farming. Under the Treaty of Versailles (1919), Britain received a League of Nations mandate to administer the territory except for Ruanda-Urundi, which came under Belgian administration, and the Kionga triangle, which went to Portugal.

Tanganyika Territory

Sir Horace Byatt, administrator of the captured territory and, from 1920 to 1924, first British governor and commander in chief of Tanganyika Territory (as it was then renamed), enforced a period of recuperation before new development plans were set on foot. A Land Ordinance (1923) ensured that African land rights were secure. Sir Donald Cameron, governor from 1925 to 1931, infused a new vigour into the country. He reorganized the system of native administration by the Native Authority Ordinance (1926) and the Native Courts Ordinance (1929). His object was to build up local government on the basis of traditional authorities, an aim that he pursued with doctrinaire enthusiasm and success. He attempted to silence the criticisms by Europeans that had been leveled against his predecessor by urging the creation of a Legislative Council in 1926 with a reasonable number of nonofficial members, both European and Asian. In his campaign to develop the country's economy, Cameron won a victory over opposition from Kenya by gaining the British government's approval for an extension of the Central Railway Line from Tabora to Mwanza (1928). His attitude toward European settlers was determined by their potential contribution to the country's economy. He was, therefore, surprised by the British government's reluctance to permit settlement in Tanganyika. The economic depression after 1929 resulted in the curtailment of many of Cameron's development proposals. In the 1930s, too, Tanganyika was hampered by fears that it might he handed back to Germany in response to Hitler's demands for overseas possessions.

At the outbreak of World War II Tanganyika's main task was to make itself as independent as possible of imported goods. Inevitably the retrenchment evident in the 1930s became still more severe, and, while prices for primary products soared, the value of money depreciated proportionately. Tanganyika's main objective after the war was to ensure that its program for economic recovery and development should go ahead. The continuing demand for primary produce strengthened the country's financial position. The chief item in the development program was a plan to devote 3 million acres (1.2 million hectares) of land to the production of peanuts (the Groundnuts Scheme). The plan, which was to be financed by the British government, was to cost £25 million, and, in addition, a further £4.5 million would be required for the construction of a railway in southern Tanganyika. It failed because of the lack of adequate preliminary investigations and was subsequently carried out on a greatly reduced scale.

Constitutionally, the most important immediate postwar development was the British government's decision to place Tanganyika under UN trusteeship (1947). Under the terms of the trusteeship agreement, Britain was called upon to develop the political life of the territory, which, however, only gradually began to take shape in the 1950s with the growth of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). The first two African members had been nominated to the Legislative Council in December 1945. This number was subsequently increased to four, with three Asian nonofficial members and four Europeans. An official majority was retained. In an important advance in 1955, the three races were given parity of representation on the unofficial side of the council with 10 nominated members each, and for a time it seemed as if this basis would persist. The first elections to the unofficial side of the council, however, enabled TANU to show its strength, for even among the European and Asian candidates only those supported by TANU were elected.

A constitutional committee in 1959 unanimously recommended that after the elections in 1960 a large majority of the members of both sides of the council should be Africans and that elected members should form the basis of the government. The approval of the British colonial secretary was obtained for these proposals in December 1959, and in September 1960 a predominantly TANU government took office. The emergence of this party and its triumph over the political apathy of the people were largely due to the leadership of Julius Nyerere. Tanganyika became independent on Dec. 9, 1961, with Nyerere as its first prime minister.

Social Organisation

Before colonial invasion, the indigenous people had built up formidable political systems and institutions. These were either kingdoms, chief-doms or social orders such as the Maasai Age-set rule. The Nyamwezi people under chief Mirambo, the Hehe under chief Mkwawa and a series of kingdoms among the Chagga and the Haya people are some of such developments recorded.
It is from some of these institutions that resistance to colonial domination, subjugation and exploitation emerged from late 19th century to the 20th century. For instance, in 1905-7, through the famous "Majimaji War" the people in the Southern part of Tanzania took up arms and fought the German rulers there. Helped by the world wars, eventually, the local people kicked the Germans out of Tanganyika. Traces of historic exotic artifacts have been made as evidences of the interactions between Tanzanians and the rest of the world societies. The Periplus of the Erythrean sea, for instance, puts clear the record that the East African coast had strong political developments.

Further Arabian influence in the country is recorded since the 7th century after the Birth of Christ. The occupation of the Isles and the Coastal areas by Asian societies did culminate in a systematic inhuman slave trade. Tired of cosmetic political changes in Zanzibar, the "Zenj" people evicted the Arabian rulers in 1964 through an armed revolution.

Similarly, after a protracted occupation by the unsuspecting traders, explorers and missionaries from Europe since the 15th Century Tanzania found itself being subjected to systematic colonial domination by Germany and Great Britain at different times before 1961. The Great Berlin conference of 1884 was the springboard of all what had happened for subjugating Tanzania and Africa.

During the domination of Tanzania by Germans, British and Arabs, the indigenous people were decimated, lost their destiny and cultural identity, were economically exploited and their technology disrupted. However, the worst evil of all committed by colonialists has been their wishful intent to discourage individual initiative to venture, discover, make attempts and to fabricate. The outcome is the current dependency status!

As early as 1950's different, but very interesting forms of modern struggles for independence were being created. For example by 1954 the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), a political party already was a force to reckon with under the able leadership of Julius Kambarage. Nyerere. It is under the same political party that Tanzania got rid of British domination in 1961. In Zanzibar, the Afro Shirazi Party emerged late in the 1950's and toppled the arab rule on the island in 1964. Tanganyika and Zanzibar United in that year to form the United Republic of Tanzania.

Source. Tanzanian government -

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tirsdag 6. desember 2011

Uhuru Torch starts historic climb of Mount Kilimanjaro

Uhuru Torch bearers start an arduous but historic journey to climb Mount Kilimanjaro at Marangu area in Moshi Rural District on Monday. The team is expected to arrive at the Uhuru Peak on Friday (December 9) when the nation will cheer and toast to the climax of 50 years of independence. (Photo by Anna Itenda)

Kilimanjaro Regional Commissioner (RC), Mr Leonidas Gama on Monday wished seven climbers assigned to take the Uhuru Torch to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro a good and safe climb at a short function held at Marangu route and the headquarters of Kilimanjaro National Park.

He told them that the nation has bestowed them a special honour to record an event which will ultimately go to the annals of history.

The RC said the event is a similar feat which was performed by the late Lt. Alexander Nyirenda who hoisted the National Flag on the peak of Kilimanjaro to mark the country’s attainment of political independence some 50 years ago, an event which will be marked on December 9 this year.

“As you begin your historic expedition, suffice to say that we will wish a safe journey up to the Africa’s highest peak, and upon your descent, we will welcome you as among heroes of this country,” he said.

Earlier, the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Information, Youth, Culture and Sport, Mr Sethi Kamuhanda, mentioned the Uhuru Torch climbers as Lt. Tanu Mlowezi (TPDF), Lt. Mary Shayo (TPDF), Corporal Lucas Matandiko (TPDF), Ignaus Kapalata (KINAPA), Duke-eli Mwanguku (KINAPA), George Kasembe (TBC) and Ismail Nyyonga (MAELEZO).

By PETER TEMBA, Tanzania Daily News

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søndag 4. desember 2011

The Kilimanjaro Uhuru Climb: 4th – 11th December 2011

Yesterday morning marked the beginning of an historic journey in Tanzania as lots different nationals starts an exhibition to climb Mount Kilimanjaro in celebrating 50 years of independence of Tanzania (Tanganyika).


The climb is led by Madaraka Nyerere - son of the late President Julius K. Nyerere, and is organized by the Tanzania Tourist Board; the team will take the Lemosho Route which is going to take 6 days of climbing and approximately 2 days coming down.

Madaraka Nyerere to the left - on one of his earlier climbs to the roof of Africa!

The route the expedition is taking is called the Lemosho Route - and will start at Londarossi Gate (1990M) - go all the way to Mtimkubwa Camp (2700M) on day one. From there they will trek all the way to Shira Camp 1 (3600M) day two. From there they continue trekking to Barranco Camp (3950M) on day three, Karanga Valley (4200M) day four to Barafu Camp (4600M) on day five. The final decent to our destination, Uhuru Peak (5895M) will start on the night of day 5 so as to reach the summit at dawn to celebrate 50 years of indepencence in style.

Wishing the climbers a safe hike and a good celebration!

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Journalists climbing Mount Kilimanjaro

By Daniel Mjema - The Citizen Reporter

A group of 15 journalists and a section of members of the Tanzania National Parks (Tanapa) board of directors today start a six-day journey to conquer Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro.


The group, which also includes the writer of this article, is expected to reach their first post, Mandara Hut, today at around 5pm.According to Tanapa Public Relations manager Pascal Shelutete, Mandara hut is located some 2,700 metres above the mean sea level.

Originally, there were only 14 journalists set for the trek before the Communication officer in the ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Ms Sheiba Bulu, decided to join the team yesterday.

Preparations for the journey to scale the mountain whose tip stands at 5,895 metres above sea level were completed yesterday after the team received mountain climbing gear.

Each of the journalists was given special clothing for the chilly weather, water containers, a sleeping bag, a walking stick as well as sunglasses.They will be joined by six Tanapa board members to make the journey which has been prepared specifically to mark Tanzania Mainland’s 50th independence anniversary.

The team is expected to reach the highest point, Uhuru Peak, on December 9, the day when the country would mark Independence Day.Tomorrow the team will travel from Mandara Hut to Horombo Hut which is located some 3,720 metres above sea level where they will stay for two days.

According to Mr Shelutete, after leaving Horombo Hut, the team will aim for Kibo Hut, some 4,700 metres above sea level and from there, on the night of December 9, they will head for Uhuru Peak.

The team of journalists is made up of James Range (Star TV), Emanuel Almasi and Nicholaus Mbaga (TBC1), Irene Mark (Tanzania Daima) as well as Mussa Juma (Mwananchi).
Others are Asraji Mvungi (ITV/Redio One), Juma Kapipi (Channel 10), Lilian Joel (Uhuru), Salome Kitomary (Nipashe) and Rodrick Makundi (Redio Moshi FM).

Joining the group are also Charles Ndagulla (Tanzania Daima), Emmanuel Herman (a photo journalist with The Citizen), Mr Shelutete and the author of this article.This is the first time Tanapa organises a large team of journalists for such an expedition since Tanganyika became independent in 1961.

The team will be led by 81-year old guide Emanuel Minja who also guided Mr Charles Nyirenda to place the Uhuru Torch on top of Mount Kilimanjaro on December 9, 1961.

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torsdag 1. desember 2011

The freedom adventure!

This trip will take you to: Arusha - Kilimanjaro through Machame route - Ngorongoro Crater - Serengeti National Park - Culture and History - Butiama, home of late President Julius Kambarage Nyerere - Mwanza - Lake Victoria.


From the roof of Africa - Uhuru peak (Uhuru translates to freedom) on top of Mount Kilimanjaro through "Garden of Eden - The Ngorongoro Crater", over the endless plains of the Serengeti to Butiama which is, foremost, famous as the birthplace and the final resting place of Tanzania's founding president, Julius Kambarage Nyerere, who is known to Tanzanians as Mwalimu Nyerere.

Paka Adventures invite all to join the celebration of 50 years of Independece for Tanzania by joining our adventourus journey!

First we climb Mount Kilimanjaro, the continents highest peak, and one of Africa’s most magnificent sighs. The highest freestanding mountain in the world, rising from cultivated farmlands, through lush rainforest to alpine meadows, and at last in between lunar landscape up to the twin summits of Kibo (5.895 m) and Mawenzi (5.149 m) peaks.

Then our agile 4x4s will get you to close to some of the planet’s most amazing wildlife. And, with full service lodging, you can stay close to the action without having to worry about the chores—so you can focus on the magnificent terrain and fantastic views.

We end the journey with the historical sites of Butiama.

If you're craving for the victory of standing on "The freedom peak", unique wildlife encounters and historical and cultural experiences that will leave you breathless, here's the fix.

Check out the details!

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fredag 25. november 2011

Celebration's in Norway

First in Bergen

Then in Oslo

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